Even if you strive for a sustainable lifestyle at home, it may be tempting to avoid thinking about the effect your travels could have on the environment. No one wants to feel guilty on vacation.
But the effects traveling has on the environment are significant. A study published last year by the University of Sydney found that global tourism accounts for eight percent of total carbon emissions, three times higher than previously thought.
“As global travel is becoming cheaper and more accessible, the usage of airplanes, cruise ships, trains and buses is increasing and giving off a tremendous amount of carbon and other harmful substances,” said Samantha Bray, managing director of the Center for Responsible Travel, a non-profit organisation that supports sustainable tourism practices.
However, being a sustainable, or green, traveller — one who considers the impact travel has on both the physical and the cultural environments visited — is not as inconvenient as it may seem.
Here are some practical steps travellers can take to limit the potential harm that comes from exploring the world.
Hit the Rails: How you choose to reach your destination may be the single most important decision when it comes to your trip’s environmental impact.
According to the Environmental Protection Agency, aircraft produce 12 percent of all U.S. greenhouse gases generated from transportation. Emissions from cars and other vehicles account for an even greater total percentage.
If where you’re heading is accessible by train, consider taking one.
“It’s a great way to see a destination and has a much lower carbon impact than flying,” said Justin Francis, CEO of Responsible Travel, a travel booking agency that specialises in sustainable tourism.
Stay in sustainable lodging: Where you choose to sleep at night also plays a key role in being a green traveller. This part requires some legwork and research, however.
“Hotel sustainability practices have grown tremendously in recent years, especially through certification programs that follow international best-practice standards,” Bray said.
The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) recognises certification programs for hotels and tour operators, Bray said. Travelers can visit its site to see lists of these programs, which include The Rainforest Alliance and Earth Check, and hotels that are accredited will typically show a GSTC certification logo on their own websites and marketing materials.
But hotels that are not officially recognised for their green efforts can still be sustainable, which is why you should inquire with a hotel you’re considering before you book.
“Always ask your holiday provider for their responsible tourism policy — if they don’t have one then they are not taking it seriously and you may want to reconsider,” Francis said.
Key aspects to look for in a responsible tourism policy include environmental, social and local economic effects, from waste, water and energy. You should also look for the hotel’s commitment to its local community and the fair employment of local people, Francis said.
Respect your hosts: “As soon as you remember that you are visiting people’s homes, and see them as hosts rather than homogeneous holiday providers, you become more responsible tourists,” Francis said.
Bray suggests following the mantra of “leave no trace” when visiting a destination, as the creation of solid waste — particularly plastic — has significant environmental effects.
“Travelers can help reduce their waste production by carrying their own reusable bags, straws, utensils, and takeaway containers,” Bray said.
Tourists can also choose to spend their money with businesses that source locally.
“This may be through eating locally grown foods or purchasing locally produced handicrafts. Often times, making the more sustainable and locally beneficial choice is actually more enriching,” Bray said.
Know your tour operator: Some tour companies are better than others regarding environmental conservation, protecting wildlife, supporting cultural heritage and employing local guides.
In general, choose operators that are transparent about their support for the communities they visit.
“Many are doing this very well, even becoming carbon neutral, and now have responsible travel policies that guide how they interact with and support communities,” Bray said.
If a tour company is not clear about its policy, ask them directly if they employ locals and how else they connect with the community.
On wildlife tours, “feeding, touching and any altering of natural behaviour should never take place,” Francis said.
“If you’re encouraged to do any of these things on your trip then we would advise reporting tour operators who encourage this kind of behaviour and holding them to account on social media or review sites if needs be.”